If you want to discourage a worker, subject them to policies and procedures that don't make sense. This principle was first described by Frederick Herzberg, an American psychologist who developed one of the most widely studied theories of workplace motivation. Unfortunately, Herzberg's principle is being widely applied today in medicine. Changes in healthcare payment systems, the use of information technology, and the doctor-patient relationship have left many doctors deeply discouraged. Consider three specific examples. A physician who could provide care for a pediatric patient over the phone asks the mom to drive three hours each way to the office, because he can get paid for an office visit.