The New York Times, February 23, 2011
A third federal judge upheld the constitutionality of the Obama health care law on Tuesday, reinforcing the divide in the lower courts as the case moves toward its first hearings on the appellate level. Judge Gladys Kessler of Federal District Court for the District of Columbia became the third appointee of President Bill Clinton, a Democrat, to reject a constitutional challenge to the Affordable Care Act. Two other federal district judges, both appointed by Republican presidents, have struck down the law's keystone provision, which requires most Americans to obtain health insurance starting in 2014. One of those judges, in a case filed in Florida, ruled that the rest of the law could not be severed from that provision, and suggested that the entire act was therefore invalid.